Highlights of Plenary 2

Managing Globalization
to ensure a more equitable and sustainable path to national and regional development

Globalization: challenges and opportunities
by Ms. Solita Collas-Monsod
Professor, School of Economics, University of the Philippines

This is an edited version of the paper.
The complete version can be downloaded either as a Microsoft Word file or an Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file.

Globalization can be defined as:

Text Box: GLOBALIZATION ILLUSTRATED:

Natural Barriers fall…

·	Shipping cheaper: average ocean freight and port charges per ton falling by more than 2/3 between 1920 and 1990
·	Air transport cheaper and shorter travel time
·	Communications cheaper: cost of international 3-minute call (New York to London) fell from US $ 245 (in 1930) to US $ 32 (in 1970) to US $ 3 (in 1990)
·	Computer cost cheaper: In 1990, the personal computer costs only 5% of their price in 1970

Artificial Barriers fall…

·	Trade barriers (such as tariffs, quotas, etc.) and exchange controls reduced
·	Political and Social barriers: end of the cold war and apartheid
·	Capital controls lifted
·	Foreign exchange controls lifted


GLOBALIZATION IS NOT A NEW PHENOMENA BUT ITS CHARACTER HAS CHANGED.

Impact of Globalization

The Good News…

The Disturbing News…

The Mixed Impact on Women…

TO MAKE THE MOST OUT OF GLOBALIZATION, WE MUST MANAGE GLOBALIZATION BETTER SO THAT ITS DOWNSIDE IS MINIMIZED AND ITS BENEFITS MAXIMIZED.

Governance is the key -- because Governance is not just mere government, but includes the framework of rules, institutions and established practices that sets limits and give incentives for the behavior of individuals, organizations and firms.

Text Box: FACTORS TO THE SKEWED BENEFITS 
OF GLOBALIZATION

Bad Policy:
·	Large fiscal deficits
·	Overvalued currency
·	Tariffs and other protection
·	Lack of transparency or consistency
·	Neglect of investment in people
·	Neglect of infrastructure

Bad Terms:
·	Terms of trade
·	Terms of finance
·	Terms of flow of people

Bad Rules:
·	Higher tariff reductions on goods from industrial countries
·	Higher tariffs on goods with greatest potential for poorest countries, e.g., agricultural commodities
·	Higher tariffs on processed goods than raw materials
·	Non-tariff barriers e.g. anti-dumping, quotas, "voluntary" export restraints
·	Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) increases cost of technology transfer
·	Provisions on special treatment for developing countries not yet fully implemented
·	Labor markets not as open as capital markets

The challenge we face is how to…

Agenda for Action:

National Level…

Group Solutions and Concerted Action …

International Policy…

Role of Parliamentarians…


Technology, Women and Globalization
by Dr. Swasti Mitter
Professor, Institute for New Technologies, United Nations University


Text Box: POLICY MAKERS NEED TO PAY ATTENTION TO GLOBALIZATION AND TECHNOLOGY BECAUSE:

§	Decisions, particularly on the research and development (R&D), as well as on the implementations of technologies, are made in the OECD countries which are the headquarters of global corporations;

§	Imported technologies alter (a) the quantity and quality of employment and (b) modes of consumption and communication of men and women in the region.
The relationship between technology and globalization is 2-pronged i.e.,

TECHNOLOGY-LED GLOBALIZATION AND THE GLOBALIZATION OF TECHNOLOGY AFFECT WOMEN'S LIVES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC COUNTRIES AND NEED ATTENTION OF THE POLICY MAKERS.

The policy perspective in governance should be able to:

OPPORTUNITIES: Relocated service sector jobs from high-wage countries

A combination of personal computers, cheap software, and cost-effective connectivity has given rise to networking technologies. The Internet is the prime example, whereby it is possible to transfer digitalized information across local boundaries with ease.

These networking technologies are bringing new job opportunities for women in vast numbers in the region particularly in English speaking countries, such as India and the Philippines.

A wide range of service sector jobs (e.g., medical transcription, data entry, geographical information systems, back office clerical jobs, airlines ticketing, customer care services) can be and are being located from high-wage OECD to low-wage Asian countries that have a steady pool of high quality women workers. These relocated jobs are called Remote Processing.

Women are getting a substantial proportion (nearly 20%) of relocated software services in the region-- in India, the figure is 20%; the figure is comparable in the Philippines.

As it takes up a smaller amount of capital to start up businesses in remote processing work, women find new opportunities in self-employment as sub-contractors of global corporations.

Text Box: THE GLOBALIZATION OF TECHNOLOGIES AND IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIVES - 
WOMEN CAN BENEFIT FROM THE FACILITIES OF: 

ä	Distance education;
ä	Tele-medicine especially for reproductive health;
ä	Access to key information on women specific issues such as nutrition, AIDS or birth control.

However, the question of access to infrastructure and skills remain important here as in the field of employment.

Opportunities Arising out of the Globalization of Technologies:

Imports of technology affect the local modes of production and employment. Internet technologies facilitate the way companies can locate and manage production away from the main site to geographically distributed centers. This expands employment possibilities of women who live away from metropolises, in suburbia, in rural areas-- both in the manufacturing and services sector.

Such technologies allow women to have possibilities of flexible location and flexible hours, through tele-working or with the use of neighborhood centers. It also allows women to have new forms of business: such as selling telephone services and Internet services through Internet and telephone kiosks or cellular phones. There are examples of such initiatives in India and Bangladesh.

These potentials become reality only when the policy makers can create an enabling environment of…

Concerns over export-oriented jobs in the services and manufacturing sectors:

Concerns over the domestic use of globalized or imported technology:

ICT and Bio-technology: Impact on Employment and Intellectual Property Rights:

In summary, Globalization brings both challenges and opportunities. The task of the policy makers will be to create an environment where strength and opportunities will be maximized while weaknesses and threats will be minimized.

Mechanism for Democratic Governance at the National Level:

The policy package and mechanism for ethical governance will depend much on the history and tradition of the countries. The Asia-Pacific region contains a variety of countries with different links to national and global market. A common framework should include:

Regional and International Policies in the Knowledge-based Economy:


WOMEN IN BUSINESS AND GLOBALIZATION
by Ms. Isabelita Palanca
Deputy Chair, Confederation of Women's Business Councils in the Asia-Pacific Economic Council (APEC)

This is an edited version of the paper.
The complete version can be downloaded either as a Microsoft Word file or an Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file.

If women are to successfully meet the challenges of globalization and liberalization they must deal with the following realizations:

  1. We need to accept that "No woman is an island." If we women in business are to succeed, we need to network and form linkages.

  2. As members of a particular nationality, we need to accept that Competition is Global not Local. We need to ride on the duality of Competition and Cooperation -- accepting that our similar products have common markets therefore, we should adopt a common industry stand.

  3. We need to consider seriously the dictum that "100% of Zero is Zero and 30% of 100 is 30." We need size. We need to form partnerships and to link up. If we cannot grow organically, we can grow by partnering with others and not necessarily with somebody local.

  4. We need to advocate-- looking beyond ourselves and our businesses. We need to be pro-active, lobby for the passage and implementation of women-friendly business laws. We should support Government and Non-Government initiatives that work for economic empowerment of women and encourage the establishment of linkages.

  5. We have to support moves for conscientization, for transparency and accountability in public governance. Good governance translates to a good environment for business enterprises to flourish.

  6. We need to practice what we preach: Our businesses have to be women-friendly. Likewise, we have to be in the forefront of espousing fair trade practices as well as transparency and accountability among private businesses.

  7. We need to be proud of who we are. We are Women!

  8. We should never forget that women are holding up half of the world's sky. If we look around, power is not being shared equally by men and women. We should be women working for women.

Text Box: MISSION STATEMENT OF THE PHILIPPINE WOMEN'S BUSINESS COUNCIL

"To build a business culture that is cognizant of women's contribution to the economy and supportive of women's quest for excellence, whether as workers, entrepreneurs, owners, proprietors or executives in pursuit of sustainable economic growth, global competitiveness and social equity."
Four needs of women in business:

  1. Access to Market.
  2. Access to Data.
  3. Access to Technology and Continuing Education.
  4. Access to Finance.

Best deals for women in business:

  1. Protection for the welfare of consumers and suppliers.

  2. High standards of production and service for both local and foreign markets.

  3. Development of transformative ethical guidelines that include such areas as gender responsiveness of management, workers' pay, environmental protection, and workers' health and safety.

  4. Development of an accreditation system that would certify a "Good Housekeeping Stamp" on business enterprises.

 


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Updated: February 20, 2008